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中国青年政治学院新闻与传播学院教师

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Foundation of Democracy--Authority --- 民主的基础--权威(连载二)  

2013-07-26 23:44:18|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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权力还是权威?(Power or Authority)

   上个练习中提出了权力和权威的问题。区分这两种概念是很重要的。你也许曾经遭遇过某些人使用权力迫使你做某些违背你意愿的事的情况。有时候那个人可能有“权力”那么做,有时候他或她可能并没有这种权利。什么时候某些人可以有权控制你的行为?

   (The exercise you have just completed raises questions of power and authority.The distinction between to ideas is important. You may have been in situation where someone used power to force you to do something against your will.Sometimes that person may have had the rigjh to do so; othe times he or she mar not have had the right. When does someone have the right to control your behavior? )

你的父母是否有权利要求你在某个规定的时间回家?为什么有?为什么没有?

(Do your parents have the right to require you to be home at the certain time? Why or why not?)

你是否有权利让你的弟弟妹妹把电视让给你看?为什么有?为什么没有?

(Do you have the right to to make your younger brother or sister leave the Tvset alone? Why or why not?)

你的校长是否有权利要求你在上课时间不许离开学校?为什么有?为什么没有?

(Does your principal have the right to require you not to leave the school campus during the school day? Why or why not?)

你的朋友是否有权利要求你做某些你不想做的事情?为什么有?为什么没有?

       (Does your friend have the right to force you to do something you do not want to do? Why or why not?)

政府是否有权利要求你遵守某项你认为是错误的法律?为什么有?为什么没有?

        (Doesthe government have the right to require you to obey a law that you believe is wrong? Why or why not?)

要回答这些问题,我们需要了解权力和权威之间的不同。尽管有许多方法定义这些词汇,在本课中,我们将运用以下定义:

    (Toanswer these questions, we need to know the difference between power and authority. Although there may be more than one way to define these terms, for our purpose we will use the following definitions.)

     权力:是一种控制或者指挥谋事或某人的能力。有时人们有行使权力的权利,有时没有。

     (Poweris ability to control or direct something or someone. Sometimes people have the right to use power; sometimes they do not.

     当一个窃贼持枪抢劫你时,他有权力让你这么去做,但是他没有权利。

     (Whena  thief robs you at gunpoint, he has the power to do so. He doesn’t have right.)

     当最高法院判定某项法律是违宪的,它有权力也有权利这样判定。

    (When the Suprem Court says a law is unconstitutional, it has both the power and right to do so.)

     权威:是一种权力,并伴随着可以行使这种权力的权利。这种行使权力的权利通常来源于法律、习俗或道德准则。

     (Authority is power combined with the right to use that power. The right to use power usually comes from laws,customs, or principles of morality.)

     警察有权威逮捕一个人,因为法律赋予了他们这样的权利。

    (Police officers have the authority to arrest a person because the law gives them right.)

     国会有权威通过一项法律,因为宪法赋予了它这样的权利。

    (Congress has the authority to pass a law because the Constitution gives it that right.)


          补充说明:权力是与生俱来的不是赋予的,权利则是法律赋予或者权威允许的。
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